Daily helminths infected adults and children, from this you can defend but is not always. Therefore, in order to clearly understand what we've got, you must know their types. It is only correct identification of the helminth, it is possible to win.
In this article You will learn about: what human worms exist where we can pick up typical signs of infestation. Take care of your health and remember that it's You one.
Human worms — classification
Helminths (worms) – a huge class of parasitic worms that live in humans, animals and plants. Helminths, parasitic worms, feeding on the internal resources of the body "boss" not only weaken the body, but also contribute to the development of other related diseases.
Strangely enough, but almost every second person – the carrier of one of the types of worms and not even aware of it until complications occur or will be conducted an additional examination. Depending on the climatic zones on different continents are different worms.
Also, worms are divided by way of transfer from organism to organism:
- bio worms – transmitted from animals;
- contagious – transmitted from an infected person;
- geo worms – larvae stored in the soil.
When ingested larvae ingested, they move through the body by the bloodstream and deposited in the organs. Most often, the worms settle in different parts of the intestine. Classification at the place of settlement of parasites:
- Translucent worms – live in hollow organs.
- Tissue – located in the tissues.
- Others can live in hollow organs, and in thicker fabrics.
In nature there are about 250 species of helminths. Each requires certain conditions for their existence and development. Worms differ in size, shape and other characteristic features.
The classification of these parasites is not yet fully formed and validated by scientists.
Separation of worms on a territorial basis is also the place to be. This fact complicates the classification of parasites. In the countries of the middle latitudes with temperate climatic conditions is possible to count more than 20 species of helminths, which are divided into three groups depending on the appearance and form:
- Round (nematodes);
- Tape (cestodes);
- Flat (trematodes).
Nematodes and trematodes are more common in nature than tape parasites. The human body is an ideal environment for reproduction and growth pinworms and ascarids. Also common and Trichinella. In cestodes belong to the bovine, porcine, rat cepni, a tapeworm.
Types of worms in humans — roundworms (nematodes)
Another name for these worms – nematodes. This type of worms is considered to be the most common. They are characterized by a round body shape in cross section. The body length of different species of worms may vary from 5 mm to 40 cm.
For life, they usually choose the intestine, but easy enough to migrate to the host body and can dwell in other bodies.
The wide distribution of nematodes is due to the fact that the infection with them is very easy. Intermediate host is not needed, and they are transmitted from one infected to another. Also, the infestation can develop by eating unwashed fruits or vegetables. That is why infection by these helminths is peculiar to children, because they tend to violate the rules of hygiene.
Pinworms – representatives roundworms have a round shape, with a length of about 2 inches. Occur in both adults and children. Settle in the small intestine and develop from larval stage to adult for 2 weeks. Pinworms cause the disease enterobiasis.
Enterobius infection is manifested by inflammation of the walls of the intestine, disturbed digestion, and toxins worms cause local haemorrhages. The disease manifests itself in the evening itching in the anus. Itching cause females to lay their eggs.
To be infected with Enterobius is possible not only through contact with common objects with an infected person, but also through the vegetables in the garden (eggs stored in the soil), cockroaches and flies can carry the eggs of worms. When enterobiasis in women parasites can cause inflammation of the genital organs. Also become inflamed and scratching, which leads to staph.
Ascarids – round worms grow up to 40 centimeters and with a diameter of about 6 inches. The eggs of ascarids in contact with the soil can be stored there for about a year before getting into a favorable environment for development. When roundworm larva enters the host organism and begins to grow, it produces toxins affecting the lungs, liver.
The larva travels throughout the body and affects the blood vessels and causes inflammatory lesions. Settles in the intestine and feeds upon its contents. A day can lay several thousand eggs.
Due to its considerable size roundworm in search of food can move into the ducts of the pancreas, bile ducts and liver, cause inflammation of the intestines can get into the gullet and block the airway. Cause such diseases as ascariasis.
The presence of ascarids in the body can be recognized by these symptoms:
- Nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain.
- Diarrhea, red worms in the stool.
- Allergic reactions.
Roundworms tend to curl into a ball, thus there is obstruction of the intestine, and as a consequence of the peritonitis.
Following the representative round worms is the whipworm. Their length is 5 cm. Its unusual form – the main part is thin, and the short section – wide. The presence in the human whipworm can cause trihozefalez.
The presence in the body of whipworm trichocephalosis leads to and is manifested by symptoms:
- abdominal pain, loss of appetite;
- diarrhea constipation changes;
- sometimes blood in the stool;
- iron-deficiency anemia.
This species of roundworms live in the stomach of dogs and feces the eggs fall on the soil. Externally, the parasite like a roundworm, but it grows only to 15 inches. The full life cycle of this parasite takes place in the body of the dog, so getting a favourable environment for human, the larvae perish, but have time to hurt.
Hit the muscles, liver, lungs, heart, tissues of the eye, the brain, the disease toxocariasis.
Activity of larvae in the body is manifested by such symptoms:
- temperature rise;
- swollen lymph nodes and liver;
- skin rash;
- lung infiltrates;
- shortness of breath, wheezing, dry cough;
- mental disorders and seizures;
- a blood test shows the presence of eosinophils.
You can confirm the diagnosis through scraping the affected area of the skin, a blood test for antibodies, liver biopsy.
In this case, the infection occurs through skin or if swallowed larvae. With blood they may be in the lungs and heart, but prefer the small intestine. They live about 4 years, causing the hookworm. His symptoms:
- Increased salivation.
The pathology occur on the running stage of infection, when the body accumulates a large amount of worms. The initial stage you'll be asymptomatic, which detect pathology could accidentally.
If you examine all the varieties found in humans, the worms, the tapeworms are among the most dangerous. The main risk associated with size, as this type of parasites can reach lengths of 18 m.
Because of this, their influence on the human body is very unfavorable. Full cycle of their life requires a change of the owner. Some portion of tapeworms live in the body of cattle, which are transferred to the people.
A tapeworm reaches 10 meters in length. With cracks on the head is attached to the surface of the intestine. The human body gets from raw freshwater fish as a larva and develops completely within a month.
Symptomatic of the presence of the parasite in the body appears as follows:
- beriberi a deficiency of vitamin B12, folic acid;
- vomiting, nausea, diarrhea;
- disorders of the gastrointestinal tract;
- the increase in temperature.
This parasite is nourished by absorption of nutrients to the surface all his considerable body. At the point of attachment broad tapeworm develops necrosis. In Calais appear segments (containing eggs) of the worm and its eggs.
Beef tapeworm (tapeworm) lives in the small intestine and is 7 meters in length. Bovine tapeworm larvae infect man by eating undercooked beef. The larvae are easy to spot in meat because their size is about 5 mm. into the human body, the larva grows for 3 months.
Propagated by means of segments, which contain up to 150 thousand larvae. Such segments on the body of the bovine tapeworm about 2 thousand.
These segments independently and come out at night from the anus and spread over the bed. The presence of this worm can cause disease beef tapeworm infection, which is manifested symptoms:
- The depletion of the body.
- Disorder of the intestine.
- Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting.
- Allergic reactions.
Pork tapeworm can be confused with a bull, but the size of his modest – 2.5 meters. And the number of segments, this parasite is also smaller – about 1 thousand. The worm head has suckers and a proboscis with hooks, which is attached to the thicker of the intestines.
You can become infected through raw meat and fat. This parasite causes the disease taeniasis and cysticercosis. Symptomatology depends on the number of worms in the body. A large number of parasites can lead to blockage of the intestine that can be treated only surgically.
Is the causative agent in hookworm. Habitat – 12-perstny gut. The length of the worm about 14 millimeters. Fed by nutrients that are produced from the intestinal wall.
The parasite through the blood vessels gets to the liver, lungs, heart. Ankylostoma infection manifests these symptoms:
- belching, nausea, heartburn, vomiting, diarrhea;
- headaches, dizziness;
- cough, dyspnea, pneumonia, pain in the heart;
- fatigue, chronic fatigue.
Hookworm causes complications: hepatitis, ulcer 12 duodenal ulcer, bronchitis, laryngitis, endocarditis. To verify the diagnosis by using blood tests, fluoroscopy, x-ray.
They are called simple due to the fact that they are unicellular. But this does not mean that their presence in the human body should not cause concern. In these types of parasites can not occur in less severe disease than in other cases.
Their danger stems from the fact that the presence in the body no pathological manifestations. People become infected with these microorganisms, swallowing Giardia cysts. This can occur when swimming in open water. Their reproduction occurs by dividing the cell in half.
From the stomach the parasites spread throughout the body together with the blood, affecting a variety of organs.
The patient may notice the symptoms of various pathologies, but not to guess about the cause of their development. Giardiasis often causes the following diseases:
- Bronchial asthma.
- The cholecystitis.
- Dyskinesia 12-duodenum and biliary ducts.
- Chronic fatigue.
Further progression of giardiasis may cause Central nervous system disorders and circulatory system.
Symptoms of worms
The manifestation of helminthiasis in humans may vary. Symptoms that occur in people who have severe infection:
- Painful look.
- Weight loss.
- Itching in the anal area.
In most cases, infection with helminths has similar symptoms with other diseases, the treatment of which does not give performance. Depending on the localization of parasites and their number is the development of certain symptoms.
Failure of the gastrointestinal system
If the parasitic worms in the intestine, then a person is faced with such problems as:
- Diarrhea or conversely, constipation.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Pain in the intestines.
- Sudden loss or, conversely, weight gain.
Large tapeworms can block the intestines and cause constipation. Because of the constant allocation of waste products a person perceives the signs of intoxication – there is nausea, vomiting, General weakness.
It should be remembered that no worms are unable to be fruitful and multiply in the human body, each species has its own period of time, after which they die, for example, have pinworms it's only a few weeks, the roundworm for about a year.
Delayed adults eggs must exit the body, either with the feces or on the skin near the anus, into the environment, in soil, and only then, Mature outside the human body and getting into it again, they start to become active and to parasitize.
Because to multiply in humans, the worms can't increase the number of adults in the intestine of an infected person is only possible when re-infestation when the eggs fall again through the mouth into the body.
For example, a person could get rid of the worms after 3-4 weeks without any treatment. But not so easy to follow these rules to toddlers and children of primary school age.