Pinwormis a frequent guest in children's groups. This is a medium-sized (up to 1 cm long) inhabitant of the small and large intestines, lays eggs, leaving the rectum, on skin folds, underwear and bedding. This happens more often at night, accompanied by severe itching in the anus. Pinworm eggs ripen after 4-6 hours and are ready to cause disease, they are perfectly preserved in the environment. They enter the human body with dust, with dirty hands, through soft toys, underwear, dishes.
Making a diagnosis - scraping from the skin around the anus and examination obtained under a microscope is needed, at least 3 times at intervals of 3 days.
When pinworm eggs are found, the entire family of the infected should be examined.
In the world, about 350 million people are infected with enterobiasis, when one family member is infected, the danger of the disease for all households is very high.
Toxocara - a parasite
Toxocarais a parasite in the digestive system of dogs. In the USA and Europe, 80% of puppies and more than 50% of adult dogs have toxocariasis. Human surveys have shown that up to 37% of the population is sensitized to the Toxocara antigen. This means that these people were or are now carriers of Toxocara.
Toxocara is up to 30 cm long, in this form it lives in the body of its permanent owner - a dog. The dog releases toxocar eggs into the sand, soil, where they can persist for several years. With the sand, they fall into the hands of children playing in the sandboxes, and also stick to shoes and clothes. Getting into a person is a dead end for the parasite, because the larvae mature, spread through the vessels and internal organs, but do not stand out.
To make a diagnosis, the analysis of feces is not at all informative, a biopsy of the affected organs (usually the liver) and immunological tests are needed.
The most tragic is the drift of toxocar into the eyes (from 15% of cases of eye removal in the world is due to toxocara), lesions of the lungs, heart, brain, muscles are also unpleasant - fever, cough, enlarged liver, inflammation of the lymph nodes, skin rashes, nervous and mental disorders, convulsions.
Ascaris - a parasite
Ascaris- affects up to 100 million people annually. It gets into a person with food (usually unboiled herbs, vegetables and fruits), with raw water, dirty hands, dust, and is actively carried by flies. The length of the roundworm is up to 40 cm, one female roundworm daily secretes up to 200, 000 eggs, which enter the soil and are well preserved in it for years. The swallowed roundworm egg in the small intestine turns into a larva, then penetrates into the intestinal wall, enters the blood capillaries, is carried to the liver, brain, eyes, heart and lungs. In the process of movement, roundworms feed on blood - erythrocytes and nutrients. Anemia (anemia) is a frequent companion of ascariasis.
The migration of larvae causes allergies in humans, pain throughout the body, fever, increased risk of asthma, arthritis, neurodermatitis, eczema, seizures. If it enters the lungs due to rupture of blood vessels, hemorrhages and hemoptysis are possible, on x-rays - infiltrates, as in a tuberculous process.
Moving along the bronchi to the pharynx, roundworms with sputum enter the mouth, and from there - into the esophagus, stomach and intestines. In the intestine, roundworms are held, resting against the walls of the intestines, causing inflammation, infiltration and hemorrhage. Complications are possible when roundworm gets into the nasal sinuses, liver, bile ducts, pancreas and kidneys. There are intestinal obstruction, suppurative processes in the abdominal cavity. The diagnosis is based on stool analyzes (at least 3 times), immunological tests - in the larval period.
Hookworm - a parasite
Hookworm- can enter a person through the skin when walking barefoot (it does not leave traces), as well as, like roundworm, through the mouth. Hookworm sizes - up to 1. 5 cm, migrates and harms in the same way as roundworm. A feature is such a symptom as an itchy rash on the limbs, and more pronounced anemia.
Stool analyzes, as for most invasions, need to be performed at least 3 times.
Wide ribbon - parasite
Wide tapewormis a large long-liver,the length of one individual is up to 10 meters, the lifespan in the human body is up to 25 years.Can you imagine what happens in a person if there are several such large centenarians inside?
Imagine how the worm is twisted in the intestine, how little space remains in the lumen of the human intestine! If the worm "straightened", then half of its length would hang out! By the way, the worm absorbs all the necessary and useful substances for itself by the entire surface of the body.
You can get infected by eating raw, insufficiently salted fish, crayfish and caviar. Symptoms of the presence of a tapeworm can be anemia, exhaustion, abdominal pain, especially signs such as increased salivation in the morning, vomiting, nausea, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness should be alerted. Intestinal obstruction is possible.
A completely stunning effect on an unprepared person is produced by the release of the severed "tail" of the parasite from the intestines - this is a feature of tapeworms that helps in making a diagnosis.
Bovine and pork tapeworms are parasites
Bovine and pork tapeworms are parasites that enter the human body with raw meat, meat products, lard.
The length of an adult bovine tapeworm is up to 7 meters, that of a pork tapeworm is up to 2 meters, the life span is up to 20 years, and the main danger is in the migration of larvae, which are able to penetrate even into the eyes and brain.
Echinococcus and alveococcus - parasites
Echinococcus and alveococcus are parasites that a person becomes infected by contact with animal carriers, drinking contaminated water, swallowing soil with berries and vegetables.
The larvae from the intestine are carried by the bloodstream throughout the body, entering the liver, lungs, kidneys, bones, and brain. The larva transforms into a cyst, which grows by pushing and squeezing the surrounding tissues. Symptoms depend on the location of the cyst and the degree of compression of the organs.
Cyst rupture is a very dire complication.
Giardia - a parasite
Giardiais the simplest parasitic animal of the flagellate class. It is pear-shaped, 10–20 µm in length; the dorsal side is convex, the ventral side is concave and forms a suction cup for temporary attachment to the epithelial cells of the host intestine. 2 oval nuclei, 4 pairs of flagella. It lives in the human intestine (mainly in children), mainly in the duodenum, less often in the bile duct and gallbladder, causing giardiasis. Asymptomatic parasitic carriers are common. Infection with cysts occurs when protozoa enter the lower intestine through the mouth when contaminated food or water enters the body, as well as through dirty hands, etc. The incidence is sporadic. Giardiasis is common in all parts of the world.